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^ Ehlenbach WJ, Barnato AE, Curtis JR, et al. (July 2009). "Epidemiologic study of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly". N. Engl. J. Med. 361 (1): 22–31. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0810245. PMC 2917337. PMID 19571280.
^ Alternative to "DNR" Designation: "Allow Natural Death" - Making Sense in the Health Care Industry.
^ "Mideast med-school camp: divided by conflict, united by profession". The Globe and Mail. August 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-22. "In hospitals in Jordan and Palestine, neither families nor social workers are allowed in the operating room to observe resuscitation, says Mohamad Yousef, a sixth-year medical student from Jordan. There are also no DNRs. “If it was within the law, I would always work to save a patient, even if they didn't want me to,” he says."
^ Eckberg, Evelyn (April 1998). "The continuing ethical dilemma of the do-not-resuscitate order". AORN Journal. Retrieved 2009-08-23. "The right to refuse or terminate medical treatment began evolving in 1976 with the case of Karen Ann Quinlan v New Jersey (70NJ10, 355 A2d, 647 [NJ 1976]). This spawned subsequent cases leading to the use of the DNR order.(4) In 1991, the Patient Self-Determination Act mandated hospitals ensure that a patient's right to make personal health care decisions is upheld. According to the act, a patient has the right to refuse treatment, as well as the right to refuse resuscitative measures.(5) This right usually is accomplished by the use of the DNR order."
^ "Frequently Asked Questions re: DNR's". New York State Department of Health. 12/30/99. Retrieved 2009-08-23. "May EMS providers accept living wills or health care proxies? A living will or health care proxy is NOT valid in the prehospital setting"
^ "DO NOT RESUSCITATE – ADVANCE DIRECTIVES FOR EMS Frequently Asked Questions and Answers". State of California Emergency Medical Services Authority. 2007. Retrieved 2009-08-23. "# What if the EMT cannot find the DNR form or evidence of a MedicAlert medallion? Will they withhold resuscitative measures if my family asks them to? No. EMS personnel are taught to proceed with CPR when needed, unless they are absolutely certain that a qualified DNR advance directive exists for that patient. If, after spending a reasonable (very short) amount of time looking for the form or medallion, they do not see it, they will proceed with lifesaving measures."