Flush Up Toilets
n Germany, Netherlands, and some regions of Poland, the bowl is designed to hold the fecal matter out of the water prior to flushing by means of a receiver shelf, whereas most U.S. or U.K. designs immediately allow it to plunge into standing water. This reverse design prevents the occurrence of any splash-up which commonly happens when fecal matter plunges into the standing water in the standard designs (although substantial deposits may cause splash-up problems of their own). The disadvantage is that it also increases the associated odor and may require the use of a brush to remove bits of feces that may have "skid-marked" on the shelf. Similar designs are found in some early toilets in the U.S., one particular brand being labeled the "Grand Niagara", as the flushing of the shelf creates a waterfall effect into the drain chamberIn India, the "Anglo-Indian" design allows the same toilet to be used in the sitting or thes. This type of toilet is also used on most Russian older style trains, made in Eastern Germany (Ammendorf factory, design dated probably to the 50s), employing a pan-like shutter valve discharging waste directly on the railway. The toilet usage is permitted only on the go, and outside of major cities. These toilets are currently vanishing, together with the old trains, being replaced with modern vacuum systems.
For a review of Japanese toilet usage and history, see